Water cooled systems typically use evaporative heat rejection to maximize energy efficiency and minimize footprint of an installation. Evaporative cooling efficiently transfers heat from the recirculating water and discharges warm, moist air to the atmosphere by utilizing both the sensible and latent potential of the air. Evaporative heat transfer significantly reduces the required fan power, footprint, and, most importantly, the overall system energy consumption. This energy consumption is significantly less than the total energy usage of similarly sized systems utilizing either air cooled or adiabatic solutions. In cooling towers, fluid coolers, and evaporative condensers, a distribution system passes water over a heat exchanger such as fill media, coil or other heat exchanger. Using the same physics as perspiration, the evaporative process cools the surface of the water as the H2O molecules transition from the liquid to the gas phase. Heat is then transferred to the airstream and ultimately into the atmosphere through the evaporative cooling process.
The evaporative process is dependent on the ability of the entering air to absorb the evaporated water molecules using the enthalpy driving force of the air. The drier and less humid the air, the higher this potential, as indicated by the wet bulb temperature, which is always equal to or less than the dry bulb temperature of the air. The wet bulb temperature is related to the amount of moisture in the air relative to the dry bulb temperature. An evaporative product can lower the process fluid in the heat exchanger to within a few degrees of the wet bulb temperature. Evaporative products have proven to be powerful, energy-efficient cooling solutions in all climates.Evaporative products use the power of water to save significant amounts of energy. To optimize the water used, design considerations evaluating water quality, upgrading the materials of construction of the units and implementing an effective water treatment program.